Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, diabetes and Shark Tank Weight Loss chronic respiratory disorders: the incidence of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is constantly high in industrialized countries. The Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) is in the process of developing a national preventive strategy aimed at improving the health efficiency of the population and promoting healthy behavior. The focus is, among other things, on the main risk factors of these diseases associated with personal behavior: smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful consumption of alcohol.
In this context, Docent researcher Brian Martin and his colleagues at the Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM) at the University of Zurich studied the impact of these four factors, both individual and collective, on life expectancy. For the first time, the consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle can be represented in numbers. A person who smokes, drinks too much, is physically inactive and has an unhealthy diet that has a 2.5 times higher risk of death in epidemiological terms than a person who cares about their health. Or to put it positively: “A healthy lifestyle can help you stay 10 years younger,” says lead author Eva Martin-Diner.
For the study, the researchers used data from the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). Public health doctors in Zurich have focused on cardiovascular diseases and cancer because they account for the highest number of deaths in Switzerland. The researchers were able to relate data on tobacco consumption, fruit consumption, physical activity and alcohol consumption of 16,721 participants aged 16 to 90 from 1977 to 1993 with the corresponding deaths up to 2008. The impact of the four behaviors remained visible at the same time Consider biological risk factors, such as weight and blood pressure.
“The impact of each individual factor on life expectancy is relatively high,” says Eva Martin Diner. But smoking seems to be the most harmful. Compared to a group of non-smokers, smokers had a 57 percent higher risk of premature death. The effect of an unhealthy diet, an insufficient addiction to alcohol and alcohol, leads to a high risk of death by 15 percent per worker. “We were very surprised at the risk of 2.5 times when the four risk factors were combined,” explains Brian Martin. Therefore, the probability that a 75-year-old man and all risk factors are alive in the next 10 years is, for example, 35%, without risk factors of 67%, for women 47% and 74% , respectively.
The effects appear only later in life
According to Martin, an unhealthy lifestyle has a long-term effect. While high consumption of wine, cigarettes, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity have no effect on the mortality rate among children aged 45 to 55, it has a clear impact on children aged 65 to 75 years. The probability that a 75-year-old man without any of the four remaining risk factors in the next 10 years is 67%, the same risk as a smoker who is ten years younger, does not exercise, is not healthy and drinks too much .
Public and social health professionals describe life expectancy and four risky behaviors for age groups in what are known as survival maps. The effect of individual risk factors and their combined effect on mortality can be observed at a glance. “In the future, doctors will be able to refer to easily understandable diagrams when they provide health advice to their patients in primary health care,” says Eva Martin Diner with confidence. “In addition, it can also be important for policy discussions on prevention strategies for noncommunicable diseases.”
The study was funded by the Swiss Heart Foundation and the Swiss Cancer Society. It is an example of how cohort studies can generate relevant results of health policies.
Eva-Martin-Diner, Julia Mayer, Julia Brown, Sylvain Tarnotzer, David Faye, Sabine Rourman and Brian W. Martin. The combined effect on the survival of four main behavioral risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Preventive Medicine, June 2014. DOI: 10.1016 / j.ypmed.2014.05.023
Launching of the “National strategy for the prevention of non-communicable diseases”
The National Health Policy for Dialogue, the permanent platform of the Swiss Government and the cantons, has decided to start developing a national strategy for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases for 2016. The strategy aims to improve the health efficiency of the population